Content on this page is compliments of:
Forman Rossabi Black, PA
PO Box 41027 Greensboro, NC 27404
Homeowner Associations are governed by a chain of governing documents and laws.
- The Articles of Incorporation filed with the Secretary of State provide the legal basis of the association in the form of an Incorporated Non-Profit Corporation.
- The recorded map or 'plat' defines each owner's title to property including the association's title to common areas.
- The CCR's (Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions) are publicly recorded deed restrictions.
- The Bylaws are the rules for management and administration.
- Resolutions are additional rules and regulations that the association may adopt.
- Federal Laws also apply. Some but not all include the The Fair Housing Act, Internal Revenue Codes, the American Disabilities Act, the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act , the FCC OTARD Rule (Over the Air Reception Devices - Satellite Dishes), FHA Condominium Mortgage Insurance, Freedom to Fly the American Flag, EPA 2008 Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Program Rule, and the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act.
- Information regarding State Laws specific to common interest communities such as condominiums, cooperatives, and homeowner associations are provided below and in the FAQ section of the Resouce Center. In addition there are typically additional state laws that are not specific to Common Interest Communities which require compliance. Some examples include stormwater runoff, coastal development, elevator inspections for condos, and pool operations to name a few.
- Local Ordinances, while not specific to homeowner associations, apply to building codes, animal control, abandoned cars, water restrictions, etc.
- Additional legal regulations can exist in the form of case law; standards set by professional organizations such as accountants, engineers, architects, home inspectors, and real estate brokers; as well as lender requirements.
- State laws affecting Common Interest Communities vary widely.
- Bills affecting Common Interest Communities are frequently being introduced in state legislatures and may be in different stages of consideration, approval, or enactment.
- It is not uncommon to find conflicts within or between governing documents such as the covenants and the bylaws. There may also be conflicts between governing documents and statutes. When this occurs, attorneys must often consider applying Rules of Intepretation.
- Because of the wide variance in state laws, constant changes and possible conflicts in governing documents or statutes, it is strongly recommended that association boards and members seek legal counsel and especially with firms that have expertise or strong practice experience in the area of Common Interest Community law. A good starting point is to check the HOA-USA Partner Directory for your respective state.
North Carolina State Laws:
2011 Legislative Activity:
- The North Carolina General Assembly most recently convened in regular session on January 26, 2011 and adjourned on June 18, 2011. The Legislature meets biennially. Dates of future special and regular sessions may be followed on the General Assembly website. HOA-USA will monitor and report legislative activity affecting common interest communities. Be sure to register on our website to receive our e-newsletter as well as Facebook and Twitter.
- Forman, Rossabi, and Black have published a summary of legislative activity from the most recent session of the North Carolina General Assembly including new laws affecting common interest communities. It is a free download in the HOA-USA Resource Center.
2011 Appelate Cases:
- Covenant Enforcement, Fines and Legal Fees
Todd M. Bodine and Janet L. Paczkowski | v. Harris Village Property Owners Association, Inc., No. COA09-1458, North Carolina Court of Appeals, September 7, 2010. The North Carolina Supreme Court affirms the decision of the trial court directing verdict in favor of defendant HOA. Read More...
- Richard Steiner andTina Steiner | v. Windrow Estates Home Owners Association, Inc., No. 09-CVD-10977, North Carolina Court of Appeals, July 19, 2011. The North Carolina Supreme Court affirms the decision of the trial court directing favor of the plantiff homeowner.